Monday, April 04, 2005


Founded by Major H. Douglas Warden in 1846 as a fort and residency, it became the seat of the British-administered Orange River Sovereignty (1848–54) and of the Orange Free State (an independent Boer republic formed in 1854). The failure of the Bloemfontein Conference

Sunday, April 03, 2005

Yalow, Rosalyn S.

Yalow graduated with honours from Hunter College

La Bourdonnais, Bertrand-françois Mahé, Count (comte) De

La Bourdonnais entered the service of the French East India Company as a lieutenant at 19, was promoted to captain in 1724, and took part in the capture of Mahé on the Malabar Coast (southwestern India) in 1726. From 1735 to 1740, he was governor

Saturday, April 02, 2005

Offset Printing

Also called  offset lithography , or  litho-offset  in commercial printing, widely used printing technique in which the inked image on a printing plate is printed on a rubber cylinder and then transferred (i.e., offset) to paper or other material. The rubber cylinder gives great flexibility, permitting printing on wood, cloth, metal, leather, and rough paper. An American printer, Ira W. Rubel, of Nutley, N.J., accidentally discovered

Thompson, Lucky

Thompson played tenor saxophone in the early 1940s with Lionel Hampton, the legendary Billy Eckstine band, and Count Basie before a highly active period in Los Angeles working with Dizzy

Powell, Colin

The son of Jamaican immigrants, Powell grew up in the Harlem and South Bronx sections of New York City and attended the City College of New York (B.S., 1958), serving in the Reserve Officers' Training Corps (ROTC). He entered the army upon

Thursday, March 31, 2005

Agricultural Technology, Rainmaking

Attempts to increase the amount of precipitation from clouds by seeding them with salt or silver iodide have been made for nearly three decades. Both aircraft and ground generators have been employed, but the techniques are typically beyond the means of an individual farmer. Results suggest that cloud modification is entirely possible, but the proof of increased

Rupat Island

Indonesian  Pulau Rupat , Rupat also spelled  Roepat  island in the Strait of Malacca, Riau provinsi (province), Indonesia. It lies just off the eastern coast of Sumatra across a 3-mile- (5-kilometre-) wide channel, opposite Melaka, Malaysia. The island is very low and swampy and circular in shape, with a diameter of about 30 miles (48 km). The climate is hot and humid, and rainfall is heavy most of the year. Rupat Island is sparsely inhabited,

Wednesday, March 30, 2005


German  Pietismus   influential religious reform movement that began among German Lutherans in the 17th century. It emphasized personal faith against the main Lutheran church's perceived stress on doctrine and theology over Christian living. Pietism quickly spread and later became concerned with social and educational matters. As a phenomenon of personal religious renewal, its

Tuesday, March 29, 2005

Shamanism, Drama and dance

Shamanic symbolism is impressively presented in dramatic enactment and dance, as observed among the peoples where the shamanistic rites survived longest (such as the Samoyed, Tofalar, Buryat, and Tungus). The shaman, garbed in his ritual robes, lifts his voice in song to the spirits. This song is always improvised, with certain obligatory images and similes, dialogue,

Monday, March 28, 2005


Hans Kummer, In Quest of the Sacred Baboon: A Scientist's Journey, trans. from German (1995), is a narrative account of this primatologist's study of the hamadryas baboon. Baboon Tales (1998), directed by Gillian Darling Kovanic, explains and portrays on video the life of a baboon troop during a newborn's first year.

China, The Khitan

To the north at the time of the Wu-tai rose the seminomadic but largely pastoral Khitan, who were related to the eastern Mongols. The word Khitan (or Khitai) is the source of Cathay, the name for North China in medieval Europe (as reported by Marco Polo), and of Kitai, the Russian name for China. The Khitan founded the Liao Empire (907–1125) by expanding from the border of Mongolia into